Apion godmani, Epinotia aporema, Heliothis spp., Maruca testulalis
Pod borers, Apion godmani (Fig. 1), Epinotia aporema, Heliothis spp., and Maruca testulalis (Fig. 2) lay eggs on or near pods, after which larvae penetrate pod walls and feed on pod tissue and seeds. A. godmani is a weevil, while the others are caterpillars.
- Presence of previously infested crop debris
- Lack of crop rotation
- Poor sanitation of previous legume and weed debris
- Contaminated seed
- Susceptible varieties
- Moderate to high moisture conditions favor slugs
Courtesy of F.B. Peairs, Colorado State University and K.K. Mauna, Asiatic Agr. Ind.